Cooperation between Local Governments to Address Shared Needs

  • Best Practice No 5
  • Thematic Area 2: Institutional Governance
  • Country of Origin: Indonesia
  • Name of Local Government/Municipality: Kartamantul
  • Type of Local Government: Regency
  • Replicated by: Chiang Rai City, Thailand

Short Version

Summary

In 1999, Law No. 22 made decentralization of government possible, giving autonomy to the municipalities and regencies. Since then, the role of the provincial government became more and more important. Beyond that background, the three local governments - Yogyakarta, Sleman, Bantul – decided to optimize their services to their communities by identifying urban problems that were common to them, and addressed them through integrated efforts. A Joint Secretariat (Kartamantul) has been set up to address the following services: Garbage management, liquid and solid waste management, drainage management, road management, clean water, transportation and spatial layout.

The following results have been achieved:

  1. A common waste disposal center located in Piyungan, Bantul Regency has been set up, improving the garbage management by the local governments; illegal garbage disposal has been avoided; garbage management became more responsive and effective.
  2. A water treatment system of liquid waste filter has been developed in Bantul Regency; liquid waste problems in upstream area (Yogya) to downstream area (Bantul) can now be resolved.  
  3. Urban communities have been provided with sufficient clean water.
  4. Roads connecting the three regions were constructed according to an integrated plan, thus avoiding wastage.   
  5. An integrated drainage system has been developed and set up.
  6. Limitation of minibuses to 170 vehicles servicing the route traversing the three regions; traffic flow has become more organized.  
  7. Infrastructure development along the borders of the three regions follows an integrated plan.

In the initial phase, the Kartamantul operational and project activities were financed from Yogyakarta provincial budget. Following the implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia starting 2001, the funding source for Kartamantul secretariat and its project activities were taken over by the three participating local governments. Each shares an estimated budget based on proportional distribution of shared workload.

Background and Objectives

In 2007, Indonesian government passed several laws and regulations to foster cooperation among local governments—for example, Law No. 50/2007 or Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 69/2007. For some local government such as Yogyakarta City, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency, such cooperation has been conducted many years earlier.

Using the facilities and funds of the Government of DIY Province, especially from 1990 to 2000, these three local governments conducted regional discussions at least once every two weeks. In those meetings, the heads of their respective Local Development Planning Agencies examined various development issues and sought the best solutions. The outputs of those discussions became the integrated work program of those three regions, submitted to and financed by the provincial budget (APBD). 

In 1999, Law No. 22 made decentralization of government possible, giving autonomy to the municipalities and regencies.  Since then, the role of the provincial government in the cooperation forum of those three local governments, particularly in terms of financing, started to decrease. Nevertheless, the three local governments continued their cooperation, recognizing that they have similar needs and the cooperation had helped them significantly. In 2001, they formed the Joint Secretariat of Yogyakarta City, Sleman Regency and Bantul Regency (Kartamantul).

Profile of the Local Government Units of Kartamantul

Yogyakarta Municipality   
  • a.   Population:+ 500.000 people
  • b.   Density: 15.197 people/km2
  • c.   Land area: 32.5 km2 or 3.250 hectares
  • d.   Economic indicators: In 2008, the municipality achieved a 5.12% economic growth. It was an increase from 4.46% in 2007.  The trade, hotel, restaurant, transportation, and communication sectors mainly contributed to this economic achievement. They are the main sectors of the municipality.
Sleman Regency
  • a.   Population: 1.041.951 people (2008 projection)
  • b.   Density: 1.813/km2
  • c.   Land area: 574.82 km2 
  • d.   Economic indicators: There was growth in all the economic sectors in Sleman, except agriculture, which depended largely on the climate.
Bantul Regency
  • a.   Population: 831.657 people (end of 2007 projection)
  • b.   Density: 1.641 people per km2
  • c.   Land area: 506.85 km2 
  • d.   Economic indicators: Bantul Regency achieved economic growth of 4.52% in 2007, a big improvement from the 2.02% of 2006.

A.   Innovative Elements

The three local governments optimized their services to their communities by identifying urban problems that were common to them, and addressed them through integrated efforts. For the past nine years, they have successfully addressed inter-regional problems, such as the management of garbage, liquid and solid waste, drainage, road, clean water, transportation, and spatial layout. 

Of those seven sectors that are managed through Kartamantul cooperation, the integrated handling of garbage management is one of the better examples of achieving cost efficiency and effectiveness through joint regional efforts.  The scope of integrated garbage management included joint utilization of infrastructure and facilities of waste landfill for urban areas; and landfill management which involved operational management and maintenance, infrastructure development, establishment of organization, environmental management, financing and infrastructure development.  

Seven Cooperation Program Sectors of Kartamantul

No   Sector    Achievements

  1. Garbage   
    • A common waste disposal center located in Piyungan, Bantul Regency has been developed, improving the garbage management by the local governments.
    • Illegal garbage disposal has been avoided.
    • Garbage management becomes more responsive and effective.  
  2. Liquid Waste Management  
    • A system of water treatment of liquid waste filter has been developed in Bantul Regency.
    • Liquid waste problems in upstream area  (Yogya) to downstream area (Bantul) can be overcome.   
  3. Clean Water    
    • Urban communities have been provided with sufficient clean water.
  4. Road    
    • Roads connecting the three regions were constructed according to an integrated plan, thus avoiding wastage.   
  5. Drainage   
    • An integrated drainage system has been developed.
  6. Transportation    
    • It has been agreed that only 170 minibus vehicles will be servicing the route traversing the three regions.
    • Traffic flow has become more organized.  
  7. Spatial Layout    
    • Infrastructure development along the borders of the three regions also follows an integrated plan.  

The cooperation between the three regions has served them well in terms of handling common problems and in delivering benefits to their respective communities (see below).

 

B.   Involvement and Activities

The heads of the Regional Development Planning Board or Bappeda of Yogyakarta City, Sleman Regency and Bantul Regency initiated the idea to cooperate in handling various problems that were common to them. For several years, they had intensive discussions on addressing these common concerns, leading them to establish the cooperation institution of the Kartamantul regions.

The cooperation institution would not have worked without the full support of each regional head, stakeholders (such as legislative assembly/DPRD), academicians, practitioners, community leaders, and NGOs. 

Since its establishment, Kartamantul cooperation institution conducts regular meetings among members of the commission board. The steering institution of the Kartamantul cooperation institution consists of Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer and Members of the Steering Team. In addition, the Kartamantul cooperation institution also has a technical team comprising of members of respective Technical Departments of cooperation projects from the three regions.

In the meetings, chaired by a chairperson (one of the regional secretaries appointed by turns, each for a term of three years), the representatives discuss various issues, both related to the ongoing programs and new issues that may potentially be addressed by new collaboration.

An integrated management approach continues to be observed in the following seven sectors:  

  1. Garbage management    
  2. Waste management         
  3. Clean Water management       
  4. Road management
  5. Drainage construction
  6. Transportation management
  7. Spatial Layout management

C.   Sustainability and Replication

The Kartamantul cooperation institution can be sustained as long as the local governments recognize their needs of each other and act for common, shared interest and objectives. So far, the Kartamantul institution has provided solutions to various problems encountered by its member-local governments. Expectedly, they have the support of the communities.

The concept of the Kartamantul cooperation is actually no different from other existing cooperation institutions. Therefore, it is highly possible for several neighbouring local governments in each region to adopt the concept of the Kartamantul cooperation.  For a program like this to succeed, it should have the commitment of all parties, particularly the regional head.